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NEET Syllabus for Biology 2023

NEET Biology syllabus 2023

Every Year NMC (National Medical Commission) releases Syllabus for NEET exam So that Students can start doing their Preparation according to that Syllabus. NMC has released the Syllabus for NEET 2023. Here we  are providing detailed syllabus of Biology Subject for NEET 2023 which will help students in their NEET preparation.

Students who are preparing for NEET exam already know about NEET. But for Students who are in pre secondary classes and thinking to prepare in future for NEET exam, can check our Post about What is NEET Exam to know every details about NEET exam.

Contents for Class XI

UNIT 1: Diversity in Living World

• What is living? ; Biodiversity; Need for classification; Three domains of life; Taxonomy &
Systematics; Concept of species and taxonomical hierarchy; Binomial nomenclature; Tools for
study of Taxonomy – Museums, Zoos, Herbaria, Botanical gardens.

• Five kingdom classification; salient features and classification of Monera; Protista and Fungi into
major groups; Lichens; Viruses and Viroids.

• Salient features and classification of plants into major groups-Algae, Bryophytes, Pteridophytes,
Gymnosperms and Angiosperms (three to five salient and distinguishing features and at least two
examples of each category); Angiosperms classification up to class, characteristic features and

• Salient features and classification of animals-nonchordate up to phyla level and chordate up to
classes level (three to five salient features and at least two examples).

UNIT 2: Structural Organisation in Animals and Plants

• Morphology and modifications; Tissues; Anatomy and functions of different parts of flowering
plants: Root, stem, leaf, inflorescence- cymose and recemose, flower, fruit and seed (To be dealt
along with the relevant practical of the Practical Syllabus).

• Animal tissues; Morphology, anatomy and functions of different systems (digestive, circulatory,
respiratory, nervous and reproductive) of an insect (cockroach). (Brief account only)

UNIT 3: Cell Structure and Function

• Cell theory and cell as the basic unit of life; Structure of prokaryotic and eukaryotic cell; Plant cell
and animal cell; Cell envelope, cell membrane, cell wall; Cell organelles-structure and function;
Endomembrane system-endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi bodies, lysosomes, vacuoles; mitochondria,
ribosomes, plastids, micro bodies; Cytoskeleton, cilia, flagella, centrioles (ultra structure and
function); Nucleus-nuclear membrane, chromatin, nucleolus.

• Chemical constituents of living cells: Biomolecules-structure and function of proteins,
carbodydrates, lipids, nucleic acids; Enzymes-types, properties, enzyme action.

• B Cell division: Cell cycle, mitosis, meiosis and their significance.

UNIT 4: Plant Physiology

• Transport in plants: Movement of water, gases and nutrients; Cell to cell transport-Diffusion,
facilitated diffusion, active transport; Plant – water relations – Imbibition, water potential,
osmosis, plasmolysis; Long distance transport of water – Absorption, apoplast, symplast,
transpiration pull, root pressure and guttation; Transpiration-Opening and closing of stomata;
Uptake and translocation of mineral nutrients-Transport of food, phloem transport, Mass flow
hypothesis; Diffusion of gases (brief mention).

• Mineral nutrition: Essential minerals, macro and micronutrients and their role; Deficiency
symptoms; Mineral toxicity; Elementary idea of Hydroponics as a method to study mineral
nutrition; Nitrogen metabolism-Nitrogen cycle, biological nitrogen fixation.

• Photosynthesis: Photosynthesis as a means of Autotrophic nutrition; Site of photosynthesis take
place; pigments involved in Photosynthesis (Elementary idea); Photochemical and biosynthetic
phases of photosynthesis; Cyclic and non cyclic and photophosphorylation; Chemiosmotic
hypothesis; Photorespiration C3 and C4 pathways; Factors affecting photosynthesis.

• Respiration: Exchange gases; Cellular respiration-glycolysis, fermentation (anaerobic), TCA
cycle and electron transport system (aerobic); Energy relations- Number of ATP molecules
generated; Amphibolic pathways; Respiratory quotient.

• Plant growth and development: Seed germination; Phases of Plant growth and plant growth rate;
Conditions of growth; Differentiation, dedifferentiation and redifferentiation; Sequence of
developmental process in a plant cell; Growth regulators-auxin, gibberellin, cytokinin, ethylene,
ABA; Seed dormancy; Vernalisation; Photoperiodism.

UNIT 5: Human Physiology

• Digestion and absorption; Alimentary canal and digestive glands; Role of digestive enzymes and
gastrointestinal hormones; Peristalsis, digestion, absorption and assimilation of proteins,
carbohydrates and fats; Caloric value of proteins, carbohydrates and fats; Egestion; Nutritional
and digestive disorders – PEM, indigestion, constipation, vomiting, jaundice, diarrhea.

• Breathing and Respiration: Respiratory organs in animals (recall only); Respiratory system in
humans; Mechanism of breathing and its regulation in humans-Exchange of gases, transport of
gases and regulation of respiration Respiratory volumes; Disorders related to respiration-Asthma,
Emphysema, Occupational respiratory disorders.

• Body fluids and circulation: Composition of blood, blood groups, coagulation of blood;
Composition of lymph and its function; Human circulatory system-Structure of human heart and
blood vessels; Cardiac cycle, cardiac output, ECG, Double circulation; Regulation of cardiac
activity; Disorders of circulatory system-Hypertension, Coronary artery disease, Angina pectoris,
Heart failure.

• Excretory products and their elimination: Modes of excretion- Ammonotelism, ureotelism,
uricotelism; Human excretory system-structure and fuction; Urine formation, Osmoregulation;
Regulation of kidney function-Renin-angiotensin, Atrial Natriuretic Factor, ADH and Diabetes
insipidus; Role of other organs in excretion; Disorders; Uraemia, Renal failure, Renal calculi,
Nephritis; Dialysis and artificial kidney.

• Locomotion and Movement: Types of movement- ciliary, fiagellar, muscular; Skeletal musclecontractile
proteins and muscle contraction; Skeletal system and its functions (To be dealt with the
relevant practical of Practical syllabus); Joints; Disorders of muscular and skeletal system-
Myasthenia gravis, Tetany, Muscular dystrophy, Arthritis, Osteoporosis, Gout.

• Neural control and coordination: Neuron and nerves; Nervous system in humanscentral nervous
system, peripheral nervous system and visceral nervous system; Generation and conduction of
nerve impulse; Reflex action; Sense organs; Elementary structure and function of eye and ear.

• Chemical coordination and regulation: Endocrine glands and hormones; Human endocrine system-
Hypothalamus, Pituitary, Pineal, Thyroid, Parathyroid, Adrenal, Pancreas, Gonads; Mechanism of
hormone action (Elementary Idea); Role of hormones as messengers and regulators, Hypo-and
hyperactivity and related disorders (Common disorders e.g. Dwarfism, Acromegaly, Cretinism,
goiter, exopthalmic goiter, diabetes, Addison’s disease).
(Imp: Diseases and disorders mentioned above to be dealt in brief.)

Contents of Class XII

UNIT 1: Reproduction

• Reproduction in organisms: Reproduction, a characteristic feature of all organisms for
continuation of species; Modes of reproduction – Asexual and sexual; Asexual reproduction;
Modes-Binary fission, sporulation, budding, gemmule, fragmentation; vegetative propagation in

• Sexual reproduction in flowering plants: Flower structure; Development of male and female
gametophytes; Pollination-types, agencies and examples; Outbreeding devices; Pollen-Pistil
interaction; Double fertilization; Post fertilization events- Development of endosperm and
embryo, Development of seed and formation of fruit; Special modes-apomixis, parthenocarpy,
polyembryony; Significance of seed and fruit formation.

• Human Reproduction: Male and female reproductive systems; Microscopic anatomy of testis and
ovary; Gametogenesis-spermatogenesis & oogenesis; Menstrual cycle; Fertilisation, embryo
development upto blastocyst formation, implantation; Pregnancy and placenta formation
(Elementary idea); Parturition (Elementary idea); Lactation (Elementary idea).

• Reproductive health: Need for reproductive health and prevention of sexually transmitted diseases
(STD); Birth control-Need and Methods, Contraception and Medical Termination of Pregnancy
(MTP); Amniocentesis; Infertility and assisted reproductive technologies – IVF, ZIFT, GIFT
(Elementary idea for general awareness).

UNIT 2: Genetics and Evolution

• Heredity and variation: Mendelian Inheritance; Deviations from Mendelism- Incomplete
dominance, Co-dominance, Multiple alleles and Inheritance of blood groups, Pleiotropy;
Elementary idea of polygenic inheritance; Chromosome theory of inheritance; Chromosomes and
genes; Sex determination-In humans, birds, honey bee; Linkage and crossing over; Sex linked
inheritance-Haemophilia, Colour blindness; Mendelian disorders in humans-Thalassemia;
Chromosomal disorders in humans; Down’s syndrome, Turner’s and Klinefelter’s syndromes.

• Molecular basis of Inheritance: Search for genetic material and DNA as genetic material; Structure
of DNA and RNA; DNA packaging; DNA replication; Central dogma; Transcription, genetic
code, translation; Gene expression and regulation- Lac Operon; Genome and human genome
project; DNA finger printing.

• Evolution: Origin of life; Biological evolution and evidences for biological evolution from
Paleontology, comparative anatomy, embryology and molecular evidence); Darwin’s
contribution, Modern Synthetic theory of Evolution; Mechanism of evolution-Variation (Mutation
and Recombination) and Natural Selection with examples, types of natural selection; Gene flow
and genetic drift; Hardy-Weinberg’s principle; Adaptive Radiation; Human evolution.

UNIT 3: Biology and Human Welfare

• Health and Disease; Pathogens; parasites causing human diseases (Malaria, Filariasis, Ascariasis.
Typhoid, Pneumonia, common cold, amoebiasis, ring worm); Basic concepts of immunologyvaccines;
Cancer, HIV and AIDS; Adolescence, drug and alcohol abuse.

• Improvement in food production; Plant breeding, tissue culture, single cell protein,
Biofortification; Apiculture and Animal husbandry.

• Microbes in human welfare: In household food processing, industrial production, sewage
treatment, energy generation and as biocontrol agents and biofertilizers.

UNIT 4: Biotechnology and Its Applications

• Principles and process of Biotechnology: Genetic engineering (Recombinant DNA technology).

• Application of Biotechnology in health and agriculture: Human insulin and vaccine production,
gene therapy; Genetically modified organisms-Bt crops; Transgenic Animals; Biosafety issues-
Biopiracy and patents.

UNIT 5: Ecology and Environment

• Organisms and environment: Habitat and niche; Population and ecological adaptations; Population
interactions-mutualism, competition, predation, parasitism; Population attributes-growth, birth
rate and death rate, age distribution.

• Ecosystem: Patterns, components; productivity and decomposition; Energy flow; Pyramids of
number, biomass, energy; Nutrient cycling (carbon and phosphorous); Ecological succession;
Ecological Services-Carbon fixation, pollination, oxygen release.

• Biodiversity and its conservation: Concept of Biodiversity; Patterns of Biodiversity; Importance
of Biodiversity; Loss of Biodiversity; Biodiversity conservation; Hotspots, endangered organisms,
extinction, Red Data Book, biosphere reserves, National parks and sanctuaries.

• Environmental issues: Air pollution and its control; Water pollution and its control; Agrochemicals
and their effects; Solid waste management; Radioactive waste management; Greenhouse effect
and global warning; Ozone depletion; Deforestation; Any three case studies as success stories addressing environmental issues1

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